Slovakia

Slovakia

Flag of Slovakia
Introduction | Geography | People | Government | Economy | Communications
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Map of Slovakia
Slovakia Introduction Top of Page
Background: In 1918 the Slovaks joined the closely related Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. Following the chaos of World War II, Czechoslovakia became a communist nation within Soviet-ruled Eastern Europe. Soviet influence collapsed in 1989 and Czechoslovakia once more became free. The Slovaks and the Czechs agreed to separate peacefully on 1 January 1993. Historic, political, and geographic factors have caused Slovakia to experience more difficulty in developing a modern market economy than some of its Central European neighbors.
Slovakia Geography Top of Page
Location: Central Europe, south of Poland
Geographic coordinates: 48 40 N, 19 30 E
Map references: Europe
Area: total: 48,845 sq km land: 48,800 sq km water: 45 sq km
Area – comparative: about twice the size of New Hampshire
Land boundaries: total: 1,355 km border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 215 km, Hungary 515 km, Poland 444 km, Ukraine 90 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain: rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m
Natural resources: brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
Land use: arable land: 31% permanent crops: 3% permanent pastures: 17% forests and woodland: 41% other: 8% (1993 est.)
Irrigated land: 800 sq km (1993 est.)
Natural hazards: NA
Environment – current issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
Environment – international agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Sulphur 85, Air Pollution-Sulphur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Nuclear Test Ban, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol
Geography – note: landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys
Slovakia People Top of Page
Population: 5,414,937 (July 2001 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.86% (male 522,563; female 498,832) 15-64 years: 69.6% (male 1,872,496; female 1,896,249) 65 years and over: 11.54% (male 236,996; female 387,801) (2001 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.13% (2001 est.)
Birth rate: 10.05 births/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Death rate: 9.25 deaths/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.53 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2001 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female under 15 years: 1.05 male(s)/female 15-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2001 est.)
Infant mortality rate: 8.97 deaths/1,000 live births (2001 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.97 years male: 69.95 years female: 78.2 years (2001 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.25 children born/woman (2001 est.)
HIV/AIDS – adult prevalence rate: less than 0.01% (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS – people living with HIV/AIDS: 400 (1999 est.)
HIV/AIDS – deaths: less than 100 (1999 est.)
Nationality: noun: Slovak(s) adjective: Slovak
Ethnic groups: Slovak 85.7%, Hungarian 10.6%, Roma 1.6% (the 1992 census figures underreport the Gypsy/Romany community, which is about 500,000), Czech, Moravian, Silesian 1.1%, Ruthenian and Ukrainian 0.6%, German 0.1%, Polish 0.1%, other 0.2% (1996)
Religions: Roman Catholic 60.3%, atheist 9.7%, Protestant 8.4%, Orthodox 4.1%, other 17.5%
Languages: Slovak (official), Hungarian
Literacy: definition: NA total population: NA% male: NA% female: NA%
Slovakia Government Top of Page
Country name: conventional long form: Slovak Republic conventional short form: Slovakia local long form: Slovenska Republika local short form: Slovensko
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: Bratislava
Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje, singular – kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky
Independence: 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
National holiday: Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)
Constitution: ratified 1 September 1992, fully effective 1 January 1993; changed in September 1998 to allow direct election of the president; amended February 2001 to allow Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership
Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; has not accepted compulsory ICJ jurisdiction; legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe (OSCE) and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal theory
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Rudolf SCHUSTER (since 15 June 1999) head of government: Prime Minister Mikulas DZURINDA (since 30 October 1998) cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections: president elected by direct popular vote for a five-year term; election last held 29 May 1999 (next to be held NA May/June 2004); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition is usually appointed prime minister by the president election results: Rudolf SCHUSTER elected president in the first direct, popular election; percent of vote – Rudolf SCHUSTER 57% note: government coalition – SDK, SDL, SMK, SOP, KDH
Legislative branch: unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members are elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms) elections: last held 25-26 September 1998 (next to be held NA September 2002) election results: percent of vote by party – HZDS 27%, SDK 26.3%, SDL 14.7%, SMK 9.1%, SNS 9.1%, SOP 8%; seats by party – governing coalition 93 (SDK 42, SDL 23, SMK 15, SOP 13), opposition 57 (HZDS 43, SNS 14)
Judicial branch: Supreme Court (judges are elected by the National Council); Constitutional Court (judges appointed by president from group of nominees approved by the National Council)
Political parties and leaders: Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Pavol HRUSOVSKY]; Liberal Democratic Union or LDU [Jan BUDAJ]; Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR]; Party of Civic Understanding or SOP [Pavol HAMZIK]; Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Jozef MIGAS]; Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Bela BUGAR]; Slovak Democratic and Christian Union or SDKU [Mikulas DZURINDA]; note – this is DZURINDA’s new party for 2002 elections; he remains chairman of a rump and splintering SDK; Slovak Democratic Coalition or SDK (loose parliamentary club grouping representing members of the smaller SSDS, SZS, and those committed to run under SDKU in 2002) [Mikulas DZURINDA]; Slovak National Party or SNS [Anna MALIKOVA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Association of Employers of Slovakia; Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS; Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ; Metal Workers Unions or KOVO and METALURG
International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CCC, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECE, EU (applicant), FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC, ICFTU, ICRM, IDA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Inmarsat, Intelsat (nonsignatory user), Interpol, IOC, IOM, ISO, ITU, NAM (guest), NSG, OECD, OPCW, OSCE, PCA, PFP, UN, UNCTAD, UNDOF, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMEE, UNTSO, UPU, WCL, WEU (associate partner), WFTU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WToO, WTrO, ZC
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Martin BUTORA chancery: Suite 250, 2201 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007; note – new chancery opening in June 2001 at International Court NW, Washington, DC telephone: [1] (202) 965-5161 FAX: [1] (202) 965-5166
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Carl SPIELVOGEL embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338 FAX: [421] (2) 5443-0096
Flag description: three equal horizontal bands of white (top), blue, and red superimposed with the Slovak cross in a shield centered on the hoist side; the cross is white centered on a background of red and blue
Slovakia Economy Top of Page
Economy – overview: Slovakia continues the difficult transition from a centrally planned economy to a modern market economy. The economic slowdown in 1999 stemmed from large budget and current account deficits, fast-growing external debt, and persistent corruption. Even though GDP growth reached only 2.2% in 2000, the year was marked by positive developments such as foreign direct investment of $1.5 billion, strong export performance, restructuring and privatization in the banking sector, entry into the OECD, and initial efforts to stem corruption. Strong challenges face the government in 2001, especially the maintenance of fiscal balance, the further privatization of the economy, and the reduction of unemployment.
GDP: purchasing power parity – $55.3 billion (2000 est.)
GDP – real growth rate: 2.2% (2000 est.)
GDP – per capita: purchasing power parity – $10,200 (2000 est.)
GDP – composition by sector: agriculture: 4.5% industry: 29.3% services: 66.2% (1999 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 5.1% highest 10%: 18.2% (1992)
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.2% (2000 est.)
Labor force: 3 million (1999)
Labor force – by occupation: industry 29.3%, agriculture 8.9%, construction 8%, transport and communication 8.2%, services 45.6% (1994)
Unemployment rate: 17% (2000 est.)
Budget: revenues: $5.2 billion expenditures: $5.6 billion, including capital expenditures of $NA (1999)
Industries: metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products
Industrial production growth rate: 9.3% (2000 est.)
Electricity – production: 22.582 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity – production by source: fossil fuel: 37.56% hydro: 18.27% nuclear: 44.17% other: 0% (1999)
Electricity – consumption: 21.471 billion kWh (1999)
Electricity – exports: 930 million kWh (1999)
Electricity – imports: 1.4 billion kWh (1999)
Agriculture – products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products
Exports: $12 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Exports – commodities: machinery and transport equipment 39.4%, intermediate manufactured goods 27.5%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 13%, chemicals 8% (1999)
Exports – partners: EU 59.7% (Germany 27.8%, Austria 8%, Italy 8.9%), Czech Republic 18.1% (1999)
Imports: $12.8 billion (f.o.b., 2000 est.)
Imports – commodities: machinery and transport equipment 37.7%, intermediate manufactured goods 18%, fuels 13%, chemicals 11%, miscellaneous manufactured goods 9.5% (1999)
Imports – partners: EU 51.4% (Germany 26%, Italy 7.1%), Czech Republic 16.6%, Russia 11.9% (1999)
Debt – external: $10.3 billion (2000 est.)
Economic aid – recipient: $421.9 million (1995)
Currency: Slovak koruna (SKK)
Currency code: SKK
Exchange rates: koruny per US dollar – 48.09 (March 2001), 46.395 (2000), 41.363 (1999), 35.233 (1998), 33.616 (1997), 30.654 (1996)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Slovakia Communications Top of Page
Telephones – main lines in use: 1,934,558 (1998)
Telephones – mobile cellular: 736,662 (April 1999)
Telephone system: general assessment: a modernization and privatization program is increasing accessibility to telephone service, reducing the waiting time for new subscribers, and generally improving service quality domestic: predominantly an analog system that is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; mobile cellular capability has been added international: three international exchanges (one in Bratislava and two in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services
Radio broadcast stations: AM 15, FM 78, shortwave 2 (1998)
Radios: 3.12 million (1997)
Television broadcast stations: 38 (plus 864 repeaters) (1995)
Televisions: 2.62 million (1997)
Internet country code: .sk
Internet Service Providers (ISPs): 6 (2000)
Internet users: 700,000 (2000)
Slovakia Transportation Top of Page
Railways: total: 3,660 km broad gauge: 102 km 1.520-m gauge standard gauge: 3,507 km 1.435-m gauge (1,505 km electrified; 1,011 km double-track) narrow gauge: 51 km (46 km 1,000-m gauge; 5 km 0.750-m gauge) (2001)
Highways: total: 17,710 km paved: 17,533 km (including 288 km of expressways) unpaved: 177 km (1998 est.)
Waterways: 172 km (all on the Danube)
Pipelines: petroleum products NA km; natural gas 2,700 km
Ports and harbors: Bratislava, Komarno
Merchant marine: total: 3 ships (1,000 GRT or over) totaling 15,041 GRT/19,517 DWT ships by type: cargo 3 (2000 est.)
Airports: 35 (2000 est.)
Airports – with paved runways: total: 18 over 3,047 m: 1 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 3 914 to 1,523 m: 3 under 914 m: 8 (2000 est.)
Airports – with unpaved runways: total: 17 2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 9 under 914 m: 7 (2000 est.)
Slovakia Military Top of Page
Military branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Territorial Defense Forces, Civil Defense Force
Military manpower – military age: 18 years of age
Military manpower – availability: males age 15-49: 1,487,093 (2001 est.)
Military manpower – fit for military service: males age 15-49: 1,136,811 (2001 est.)
Military manpower – reaching military age annually: males: 45,502 (2001 est.)
Military expenditures – dollar figure: $380 million (FY00)
Military expenditures – percent of GDP: 1.71% (FY00)
Slovakia Transnational Issues Top of Page
Disputes – international: Gabcikovo/Nagymaros Dam dispute with Hungary is before the ICJ
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe